First up, you really don't need any special tools apart from LR itself. There are plenty of them and I've tried many. You've got to be really careful with the tools that "fix" faces, they often leave your subject looking like a barbie doll. Your subject isn't going to want to see that spot that appeared during the shoot but neither is she going to want to look like a plastic doll. Go easy.
The rest of this guide is for people like me who have some idea of what they want to do, but the plethora of controls more complex than the pilots console in a 747 befuddle you...
Ratings as a method of catalogue managementFirst up, I've got a bunch of similar images here, to minimise both my work in post processing but also to avoid over sharing on social networking I want to come down to one or two of this set to look at further. So to work out which one I'm going to concentrate on I'm going to review each of the similar images and rate it from 1 to 5 where 1 is worst and 5 is best. This is probably my number 1 tip in using lightroom or any catalogue software for that matter.
Tip 1: Using ratings helps you find things later.Using ratings along with your other meta data you can answer searches such as find me the best images from the shoot with Sam at Warburton in the forest. Your location and model meta data and keywords help with most, but the ratings are the only thing that can help with "best".
How do you rate them? Well it's subjective, but you can introduce some objectivity, I see it as 1 means I really don't like the image, perhaps its got a serious technical fault (e.g. out of focus or too slow a shutter speed making it blurred) and 5 means I really love the image and am completely proud of the outcome. In this case, this is a shoot of a person so I will also consider if I've captured the essence of the person and ensure I've not captured anything that unfairly detracts from her appearance from my own positioning. If I was using flash I would also be looking for things like catchlights in her eyes (a positive) and reflections of equipment (a detraction).
You select the image you want to rate from the filmstrip (quaint name but hey it works) of images that pans horizontally across the screen below the main window and press one of the number keys 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 to rate the image. This will show up as a grouping of stars.
So lets process the image
The lighting of the day wasn't very friendly to colour and I remember that Sam isn't pasty, she has lovely skin tones and that umbrella is quite vibrant (like it's owner Fran). So how do we tackle this to bring the images back to what we remember on the day, well sometimes I use colour cards in test images and sometimes I wing it. In this case I'm winging it (mostly because I left my colour cards at home).
First up, we need to change from Library mode which is about managing images to Develop mode which gives us access to the copious controls to modify an image. To do this you can press the d shortcut key (every key does something in LR) or you can click on the word Develop with your pointer. The word Develop will highlight to show the current mode.
Tip 2: Learn at least the basic short cut keys, they will save you loads of time
Now that we're in develop mode, I'm going to change from the default single view of the image I'm working on and minimise the film strip and left hand panel to devote the most room on the screen to the image. I do this by clicking the little arrows around the sides of the screen on the left and bottom sides. They're circled in red below.
Tip 3: Get as much room as possible for your image while working on it
Now your view changes so that your image is centre stage on the screen and considerably bigger than it was before. To get the panels back, just click the arrow again, or hover over it to bring it back temporarily so you can use a feature from that panel then move the pointer away to make it drop away again.
Tip 4: Before and After View helps you to know when to stop processing
The next thing I'm going to do is click on the little box with YY in it which will open the image in a before and after window. I find this very handy to see where I'm going with the image. It helps me know when to stop so I don't over process the image.
Alright, now we're ready to begin. The first thing I noticed with this image is that its quite dull. Fortunately I shoot in raw, so this is easy to fix, you shoot in RAW right? If you don't, then please consider it as it gives you the best opportunity to correct your images in post processing if they need it. Shooting directly into JPEG means that you're often limited in what you can accomplish afterwards.
Tip 5: Always shoot in RAW
Now that we are ready to move forward on this image, I'll make the gross changes first, then finalise with the subtle changes afterwards.
Tip 6: Use the tools that affect the image overall first, then narrow down to the subtle tools
The first thing I'm going to do is set the white balance to Cloudy, sometimes this is all you need for an image shot on a dull day. By the way, did you know that when shooting in RAW on your camera the camera's white balance setting actually means nothing? All it does is affect the preview JPEG embedded in the RAW. You can change it to anything you want afterwards (remember Tip 5?).
The tool to change the white balance is high lighted in yellow and circled in red, simply click on it and choose the value you want from the list. Try all of them, can't hurt in Light room you can always undo everything you've done on a RAW file (remember tip 5?) by selecting from the Settings Menu the option Reset All Settings. A lot of people never use this because in my opinion it's poorly named, to me it doesn't talk about a photo it talks about the software.
Tip 7: You can always undo what you've done in Lightroom so experiment!
The image is already looking a little better, but the change is fairly subtle. Sam's skin tones have become more normal for her skin and her hair and lips have popped a little. There is still more to do. The next thing I'm going to tackle is the clipping in the shadows. I've got clip warnings turned on for shadows and highlights, I think this is the default in LR but if it's not turned on in your copy just click the two little arrows that are top left and top right in the histogram.
While we're here, you can see that the histogram shows that this image is still a little flat, by this I mean the range of peaks is concentrated to the left of centre of the image, this image should be brighter than it is because the highlights are flat lined. I'm going to deal with this a little bit in this image, but not all the way because I actually want the darker look for this one.
Tip 8: The histogram opens a window into the image exposure and allows you to adjust it for the result you want to achieve
To deal with the clipping I'm going to bring up the shadows, until most of the bright blue warning dots vanish, in this case up to +43. I do this by grabbing the slider and dragging it to the right
Not only are the blue warning dots gone, but Sam herself as come up a bit more too. Not far enough yet, and the colours of the umbrella are still quite boring compared to what they should be. So we'll keep going. Using the same method I'm bringing clarity up +19 and vibrance up +57 which is a lot, but with this image it works out nicely - how do I know when to stop, while sliding slowly I watch Sam's face skin tones - after all I'm trying to rescue the umbrella but she is the important part of the image, so it needs to be right for her.
Tip 9: Watch the most important part of the image while adjusting and make that part right
We still aren't there yet and we've also made the whites of Sam's eyes blue, we'll fix that later. You'll notice a little bit of the clipping has come back too, but not enough to worry me, there is still plenty of detail in the shadows.
Next up, I've played with the Hue | Saturation | Luminance panel, in this case particularly the hue. These sliders work just like the others we've touched and in this case change the nature of the colour in the image. There isn't really much science to the way I use this panel, I really do just play until I like it. I do have some knowledge of colour that I've built up over time and by experimentation (tip 7!) have learned what effects the sliders have.
Ok, I'm nearly happy with this image now, but remember those blue eye areas that should be white, we're going to fix them next.
First up, I'm going to zoom into the area of Sam's eyes and work on them using the zoom tool. This is the default pointer tool in Develop mode when there are no other tools selected. Just click the pointer where you want the zoom to be centred.
You can see the blue eyes quite clearly in this image, there are a lot of ways to deal with this including reducing blue overall in the image but I want to keep the same blue that is in the umbrella. I'm going to cheat a little bit and I'm going to use the local adjustment brush and paint in some desaturation - not because it's the best way, but because it's the quickest way I know of to achieve what I want to do.
Tip 10: The local adjustment brush helps you make changes to small areas of an image without affecting anything else.
The local adjustment brush tool is the small paint brush with a halo of dots and is highlighted in this image. It's used to change small (or large if you're patient) areas of the image without affecting it overall.
In this case I'm going to reduce the saturation, so I'm preselecting that using it's slider in the panel below the brush that opened up when I clicked my pointer on the brush.
This will allow me to paint in the change of less colour into the areas that I want in the image.
In the close zoom I can also tell I've pushed the magenta up too much, but I'll deal with that after I've done her eyes.
Now that I've selected what I want, I simply paint over the areas I want to change (you might need to select a small brush - I always have it small).
By painting over the areas of Sam's eyes that were blue I've made them white again in a simple way. I haven't changed the rest of the image. Now to deal with that over blown magenta. I'll keep the image zoomed in and go back to the HSL tool and simply slide that magenta slider back a little to the left until it looks right. To do this I have to close the adjustment brush, I do this by just clicking my pointer on it again.
I've brought the magenta slider back down to +33 and I'm now quite happy with the image overall as it feels like nice skin tones in the way I remember Sam to be. The previous steps I've done have highlighted one aspect of Sam that I imagine she would rather not be there, there are a couple of spots on her forehead that have become more visible so I'll make them go away.
Bonus Tip: You can easily remove small marks out of your image, be they sensor spots or be they skin spots of some kind using the spot removal tool.
First up, use the zoom tool to zoom in and centre the image to the place you want to work on, then click on the spot removal tool to open it's palette up.
Click the highlighted tool with your pointer and set the size to be only just bigger than the feature you want to remove then click on the spot and magic it will vanish, you can adjust the source point for the image copy if you need to by moving it with your pointer. This tool uses a content aware fill of sorts which is fantastic for small areas. For larger areas I'd still do it in Photoshop even though you could use this tool for it. It's finicky and in PS it's easy so guess what inner lazy man wins.
Now we've got the final image that I'm happy with. There are some other areas that I could change, but in the size I publish on social media lazy man wins again. If I was making a large print of this image I would also deal with the blue tones I introduced by forcing the blues up earlier near Sam's eyes but on the screen you only see it because I just told you about it. You couldn't see it before could you?
One last thing I do when I export an image that I'm happy with is mark it as a "pick" by pressing the p key either in Develop mode or by highlighting the image in the filmstrip and doing it. This places a flag on the image to help you find the ones you've edited later. I also set the caption in the meta data of the image so that social networks such as Google+ will pick up the text and automatically use it for the photo caption when you upload it.
Now let me show you why I use flags and ratings... It's very simple really... let's say a couple of years from now Sam contacts me and says, remember those shots we did in the forest, I really liked that one of me with the umbrella, can you send it to me. Well, that's not a hell of a lot of information to find an image when you make on average 50,000 of them each year... well, meta data is the answer. I go to the catalogue and I select to search by pressing ctrl-f for find in Library mode. Then I set my search criteria...
I set the keyword to Sam and the attributes to flagged and rated > 4 stars. Guess what, that 50,000 images just turned into three in a few seconds and there it is. I can also see by the search outcome that I did a better job on changing the first image than the one I used for this tutorial. I could go back and fix all the steps here, but guess what lazy man wins again. I have fixed the image itself and you'll see Sam in her glory above.
Extra Bonus Tip: Your complete image history is available for you to show what changes you've made.
If you're doing a photography course or undertaking VCE Studio Arts (or HSC Studio Arts in other parts of Australia - we Victorians love being different for no reason) you can use the content of this panel with your submission to show the experimentation and final changes you made in the order that you made them. You can also remove individual changes but that's a bit out of scope for this session!
This tool shows not only the changes that you have made using individual controls, but also breaks down the changes made by the clustered controls that affect a lot of other parts of the image such as changing the white balance to Cloudy changed all sorts of things. This will help you understand what those clustered tools actually do.
Last of all, happy learning and I hope this brief tutorial has been useful for you.